ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPREHENSION
Directions (51-58): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.When times are hard, doom sayers are aplenty. The problem is that if you listen to them too carefully, you tend to overlook the most obvious signs of change. 2011 was a bad year. Can 2012 be any worse? Doomsday forecasts are the easiest to make these days. So let’s try a contrarian’s forecast instead.
Let’s start with the global economy. We have seen a steady flow of good news from the US. The employment situation seems to be improving rapidly and consumer sentiment, reflected in retail expenditures on discretionary items like electronics and clothes, has picked up. If these trends sustain, the US might post better growth numbers for 2012 than the 1.5 -1.8 percent being forecast currently.
Japan is likely to pull out of a recession in 2012 as post earth quake reconstruction efforts gather momentum and the fiscal stimulus announced in 2011 begins to pay off. The consensus estimate for growth in Japan is a respectable 2 percent for 2012.The “hard landing” scenario for China remains and will remain a myth. Growth might decelerate further from the 9 percent that it expected to clock in 2011 but is unlikely to drop below 8-8.5 percent in 2012.
Europe is certainly in a spot of trouble. It is perhaps already in recession and for 2012 it is likely to post mildly negative growth. The risk of implosion has dwindled over the last few months
peripheral economies like Greece, Italy and Spain have new governments in place and have made progress towards genuine economic reform.Even with some of these positive factors in place, we have to accept the fact that global growth in 2012 will be tepid. But there is a flipside to this ofter growth means lower demand for commodities and this is likely to drive a correction in commodity prices. Lower commodity inflation will enable emerging market central banks to reverse their monetary stance. China, for instance, has already reversed its stance and has pared its reserve ratio twice. The RBI also seems poised for a reversal in its rate cycle as headline inflation seems well on its way to its target of 7 percent for March 2012.
That said, oil might be an exception to the general trend in commodities. Rising geopolitical tensions, particularly the continuing faceoff between Iran and the US, might lead to a spurt in prices. It might make sense for our oil companies to hedge this risk instead of buying oil in the spot market.
As inflation fears abate and emerging market central banks begin to cut rates, two thingscould happen. Lower commodity inflation would mean lower interest rates and better credit availability. This could set a floor to growth and slowly reverse the business cycle within these economies. Second, as the fear of untamed, runaway inflation in these economies abates, the global investor’s comfort levels with their markets will increase.
Which of the emerging markets will outperform and who will get left behind? In an environment in which global growth is likely to be weak, economies like India that have a powerful domestic consumption dynamic should lead; those dependent on exports should, prima facie, fall behind.
Specifically for India, a fall in the exchange rate could not have come at a better time. It will help Indian exporters gain market share even if global trade remains depressed. More importantly, it could lead to massive import substitution that favors domestic producers.
Let’s now focus on India and start with a caveat. It is important not to confuse a shortrun cyclical dip with a permanent derating of its longterm structural potential.
The arithmetic is simple. Our growth rate can be in the range of 7-10 percent depending on policy action. Ten percent if we get everything right, 7 percent if we get it all wrong. Which policies and reforms are critical to taking us to our 10 percent potential? In judging this, let’s again be careful. Let’s not go by the laundry list of reforms that FIIs like to wave: increase in foreign equity limits in foreign shareholding, greater voting rights for institutional shareholders in banks, FDI in retail, etc. These can have an impact only at the margin. We need not bend over backwards to appease the FIIs through these reforms they will invest in our markets when momentum picks up and will be the first to exit when the momentum flags, reforms or not.
The reforms that we need are the ones that can actually raise our sustainable longterm growth rate. These have to come in areas like better targeting of subsidies, making projects in infrastructure viable so that they draw capital, raising the productivity of agriculture, improving healthcare and education, bringing the paralleleconomy under the tax net, implementing fundamental reforms in taxation like GST and the direct tax code and finally easing the myriad rules and regulations that make doing business in India such a nightmare. A number of these things do not require new legislation and can be done through executive order.
51. Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to the passage?
(1) China’s economic growth may decline in the year 2012 as compared to the year 2011
(2) The European economy is not doing very well
(3) Greece is on the verge of bringing about economic reforms
(4) In the year 2012, Japan may post a positive growth and thus pull out of recession
(5) All are true
52. Which of the following will possibly be a result of softer growth estimated for the year 2012?
A. Prices of oil will not increase.
B. Credit availability would be lesser.
C. Commodity inflation would be lesser.
(1) Only B (2) Only A and B (3) Only A and C
(4) Only C (5) All A, B and C
53. Which of the following can be said about the present status of the US economy?
(1) There is not much improvement in the economic scenario of the country from the year 2011
(2) The growth in the economy of the country, in the year 2012, would definitely be lesser than 1.8 percent
(3) The expenditure on clothes and electronic commodities, by consumers, is lesser than that in the year 2011
(4) There is a chance that in 2012 the economy would do better than what has been forecast
(5) The pace of change in the employment scenario of the country is very slow.
54. Which of the following is possibly the most appropriate title for the passage?
(1) The Economic Disorder
(2) Indian Economy Versus The European Economy
(3) Global Trade
(4) The Current Economic Scenario
(5) Characteristics Of The Indian Economy
55. According to the author, which of the following would characterize Indian growth scenario in 2012 ?
A. Domestic producers will take a hit because of depressed global trade scenario.
B. On account of its high domestic consumption, India will lead.
C. Indian exporters will have a hard time in gaining market share.
(1) Only B (2) Only A and B (3) Only B and C
(4) Only A (5) All A, B and C
56. Why does the author not recommend taking up the reforms suggested by FIIs?
(1) These will bring about only minor growth
(2) The reforms suggested will have no effect on the economy of our country, where as will benefit the FIIs significantly
(3) The previous such recommendations had backfired
(4) These reforms will be the sole reason for our country’s economic downfall
(5) The reforms suggested by them are not to be trusted as they will not bring about any positive growth in India
57. Which of the following is TRUE as per the scenario presented in the passage?
(1) The highest growth rate that India can expect is 7 percent
(2) The fall in the exchange rate will prove beneficial to India
(3) Increased FDI in retail as suggested by FIIs would benefit India tremendously
(4) The reforms suggested by the author require new legislation in India
(5) None is true
58. According to the author, which of the following reforms is/ are needed to ensure long term
growth in India?
A. Improving healthcare and educational facilities.
B. Bringing about reforms in taxation.
C. Improving agricultural productivity.
(1) Only B (2) Only A and B (3) Only B and C
(4) Only A (5) All A, B and C
Directions (59 – 62) : Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
(1) entice (2) push (3) decoy
(4) attract (5) persuade
(1) watch (2) achieve (3) time
(4) second (5) regulate
(1) rise (2) gear (3) hurl
(4) lessen (5) retreat
(1) raising (2) developing (3) noticeable
(4) conspicuous (5) up roaring
Directions (63-65): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
(1) trivial (2) difficult (3) few
(4) effortless (5) countless
(1) moderate (2) high (3) warm
(4) irregular (5) little
(1) reality (2) belief (3) contrast
(4) idealism (5) falsehood
Directions (66 – 70) : Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them.
(A) If China is the world’s factory, India has become the world’s outsourcing centre keeping in line with this image.
(B) But India’s future depends crucially on its ability to compete fully in the Creative Economy not just in tech and software, but across design and entrepreneurship; arts, culture and entertainment; and the knowledge based professions of medicine, finance and law.
(C) While its creative assets outstrip those of other emerging competitors, India must address several challenges to increase its international competitiveness as the world is in the midst of a sweeping transformation.
(D) This transformation is evdent in the fact that the world is moving from an industrial economy to a Creative Economy that generates wealth by harnessing intellectual labour, intangible goods and human creative capabilities.
(E) Its software Industry is the world’s second largest, its tech outsourcing accounts for more than half of the $ 300 billion global industry, according to a technology expert.
(F) If the meeting of world leaders at Davos is any indication, India is rapidly becoming an economic ‘rock star’.
66. Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after the rearrangement?
(1) A (2) B (3) C
(4) D (5) E
67. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after the rearrangement?
(1) A (2) B (3) C
(4) D (5) E
68. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after the rearrangement?
(1) A (2) B (3) C
(4) F (5) E
69. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement?
(1) F (2) B (3) C
(4) A (5) E
70. Which of the following should be the, SECOND sentence after the rearrangement?
(1) A (2) B (3) C
(4) D (5) F
Directions (71 – 75) : The following questions consist of a single sentence with one blank only. You are given six words denoted by A, B, C, D, E and F as answer choices and from the six choices you have to pick two correct answers, either of which will make the sentence meaningfully complete.
71. before the clock struck 8 on Saturday night, India Gate was swamped with people wearing black teeshirts and holding candles.
A. Minutes B. Time C. Later
D. Quickly E. Since F. Seconds
(1) B and E (2) A and C (3) A and F
(4) B and D (5) C and E
72. The States should take steps to___ the process of teachers’ appointments as the Centre has already sanctioned six lakh posts.
A. fasten B. move C. hasten
D. speed E. early F. quicken
(1) D and F (2) A and C (3) C and F
(4) D and E (5) B and D
73. A senior citizen’s son____ threatened her every day and physically harmed her, forcing her to transfer her property to him.
A. superficially B. mistakenly C. allegedly
D. miserably E. doubtfully F purportedly
(1) C and F (2) A and E (3) C and E
(4) D and F (5) A and C
74. Medical teachers said that the management had continued to remain _____ to their cause leading to the stretching of their strike.
A. unmoved B. Lethargic C. unconcerned
D. apathetic E. indifferent F. bored
(1) B and C (2) C and F (3) A and E
(4) A and D (5) D and E
75. The parents had approached the high court to _____ the government order after their children, who passed UKG, were denied admission by a school.
A. void B. quash C. annul
D. stay E. lift F. post
(1) A and D (2) B and C (3) C and E
(4) E and F (5) C and D
Directions (76 – 80): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is “No Error” the answer is ‘5’. (Ignore errors of punctuation if any.)
76. The Government has asked individuals (1) / with income of over Rs. 10 lakhs to (2)/ electronic
file tax returns for the year 2011 -12, (3)/ something which was optional till last year. (4)/ No
77. Despite of curfew (1) / in some areas, minor (2)/ communal incidents were reported (3)/ from
different areas of the walled city. (4)/ No Error (5).
78. This comes (1) / at a time (2)/ when fund allocation (3)/ is been doubled. (4)/ No Error (5)
79. As the prison will get (1) / an official telephone facility soon, the prisoners (2)/ won’t have to
make calls in discreet manner (3)/ through smuggled mobile phones. (4)/ No Error (5)
80. The area was plunged into (1)/ darkness mid a wave of (2)/ cheering and shouting (3)/ slogans
like ‘Save The Earth’. (4)/ No Error (5)
Directions (81-90): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered.
These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words/phrases are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word/ phrase in each case. Greenhouse gases are only (81) of the story when it comes to global warming. Changes to one part of the climate system can (82) additional changes to the way the planet absorbs or reflects energy. These secondary changes are (83) climate feedbacks, and they could more than double the amount of warming caused by carbon dioxide alone. The primary feedbacks are (84) to snow and ice, water vapour, clouds, and the carbon cycle.
Perhaps the most well (85) feedback comes from melting snow and ice in the Northern Hemisphere. Warming temperatures are already (86) a growing percentage of Arctic sea ice, exposing dark ocean water during the (87) sunlight of summer. Snow cover on land is also (88) in many areas. In the (89) of snow and ice, these areas go from having bright, sunlight reflecting surfaces that cool the planet to having dark, sunlight absorbing surfaces that (90) more energy into the Earth system and cause more warming.
81. (1) whole (2) part (3) material
(4) issue (5) most
82. (1) raise (2) brings (3) refer
(4) stop (5) cause
83. (1) sensed (2) called (3) nothing
(4) but (5) term
84. (1) due (2) results (3) reason
(4) those (5) because
85. (1) done (2) known (3) ruled
(4) bestowed (5) said
86. (1) mastering (2) sending (3) melting
(4) calming (5) increasing
87. (1) makeshift (2) ceasing (3) troubled
(4) perpetual (5) absent
88. (1) dwindling (2) manufactured (3) descending
(4) generating (5) supplied
89. (1) progress (2) reduced (3) existence
(4) midst (5) absence
90. (1) repel (2) waft (3) monitor
(4) bring (5) access
t at associated with any Bank or IBPS, For official website of IBPS visit – www.